An inventory to assess empathic concern for disability and accessibility: development and preliminary psychometric investigation
Keywords:empathy, prosocial attitude, reliability, validity
AbstractCultivating empathy and prosocial attitude towards disability is a first step for university students to become the leaders of society and professions to create accessible environments and inclusive society. Gauging levels of empathy and prosocial attitude towards disability among the students is important for evaluating the adequacy of disability training and education. We developed and conducted an initial psychometric validation of a novel inventory in Japanese and English languages to assess Empathic Concern for Disability and Accessibility (ECDA) in Japan and New Zealand. Preliminary psychometric evaluation indicates strong internal consistency in the Japanese sample (α = .96) and the New Zealand sample (α = .93). Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated a four-factor solution for both samples. The present study has resulted in the development of the ECDA that demonstrated initial support for internal consistency and construct validity. The ECDA may be used for the cross-cultural comparisons of disability training and education.
Barlińska, J., Szuster, A., & Winiewski, M. (2015). The role of short- and long-term cognitive empathy activation in preventing cyberbystander reinforcing cyberbullying behavior. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(4), 241-244. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2014.0412
Batson, C. D., Batson, J. G., Slingsby, J. K., Harrell, K. L., Peekna, H. M., & Todd, R. M. (1991). Empathic joy and the empathy-altruism hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(3), 413-426. doi: 10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1683
Batson, C. D., Early, S., & Salvarani, G. (1997). Perspective taking: Imagining how another feels versus imagining how you would feel. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23(7), 751-758. doi: 10.1177/0146167297237008
Bazzano, A., Wolfe, C., Zylovska, L., Wang, S., Schuster, E., Barrett, C., & Lehrer, D. (2010). Stress-reduction and improved well-being following a pilot community-based participatory mindfulness-based stress-reduction (MBSR) program for parents/caregivers of children with developmental disabilities. Disability and Health Journal, 3(2), e6-e7. doi: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2009.08.088
Burke, A. (2011). Humanity after biopolitics: on the global politics of human being. Angelaki: Journal of the Theoretical Humanities, 16(4), 101-114.
Byrne, B. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts applications, and programming (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge, Taylor, & Francis.
Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52(4), 281-302. doi: 10.1037/h0040957
Davis, M. H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44(1), 113–126. doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.124
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across cultures. (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
International Paralympic Committee. (2016). The IPC - Who we are. https://m.paralympic.org/the-ipc/about-us
Kline, R. B. (2015). Principle and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.) New York: Guilford Press.
Lam, W. Y., Gunukula, S. K., McGuigan, D., Isaiah, N., Symons, A. B., & Akl, E. A. (2010). Validated instruments used to measure attitudes of healthcare students and professionals towards patients with physical disability: a systematic review. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 7, 55-55. doi: 10.1186/1743-0003-7-55
Lavrakas, P. J. (2008). Encyclopedia of survey research methods. Tousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Maus, B., van Breukelen, G. J. P., Goebel, R., & Berger, M. P. F. (2010). Optimization of Blocked Designs in fMRI Studies. Psychometrika, 75(2), 373-390. doi: 10.1007/s11336-010-9159-3
Mulligan, H., Miyahara, M., & Nichols-Dunsmuir, A. (2016). Multiple perspectives on accessibility to physical activity for people with long-term mobility impairment. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 19(4), 1-12. doi: 10.1080/15017419.2016.1167772
Myers, K. A. (2009). A new vision for disability education: Moving on from the add-on. About Campus, 14(5), 15–21. doi: 10.1002/abc.303
Netemeyer, R. G., Bearden, W. O., & Sharma, S. (2003). Scaling procedures: Issues and applications. London: Sage.
Nunnally, J., & Bernstein, L. (1994). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher, INC; 1994.
Palad, Y. Y., Barquia, R. B., Domingo, H. C., Flores, C. K., Padilla, L. I., & Ramel, J. M. D. (2016). Scoping review of instruments measuring attitudes toward disability. Disability and Health Journal, 9(3), 354-374. doi: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2016.01.008
Pasaogullari, N., & Doratli, N. (2004). Measuring accessibility and utilization of public spaces in Famagusta. Cities, 21(3), 225–232. doi: 10.1016/j.cities.2004.03.003
Rogers, W. (2003). The excellent city park system. In P. Harnik (Ed.), What Makes it Great and How to Get There. Washington, DC: The Trust for Public Land Pub.
Rushton, J. P., Chrisjohn, R. D., & Fekken, G. C. (1981). The altruistic personality and the self-report altruism scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 2(4), 293-302. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(81)90084-2
Salzberg, S. (1995). Lovingkindness: The revolutionary art of happiness. Boston: Shambhala.
Schwarz, N., & Hippler, H.-J. (2004). Response alternatives: The impact of their choice and presentation order measurement errors in surveys in P. P. Biemer, R. M. Groves, L. E. Lyberg, N. A. Mathiowetz, S. Sudman (Eds.), Measurement Errors in Surveys. (pp. 41-56): John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Siebers, T. (2008). Disability theory. An Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Stachura, K., & Garven, F. (2007). A national survey of occupational therapy students' and physiotherapy students' attitudes to disabled people. Clinical Rehabilitation, 21(5), 442-449. doi: 10.1177/0269215507073495
Thomas, J. T., & Otis, M. D. (2010). Intrapsychic correlates of professional quality of life: mindfulness, empathy, and emotional separation. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research, 1(2), 83-98. doi: 10.5243/jsswr.2010.7
Twenge, J. M., Baumeister, R. F., DeWall, C. N., Ciarocco, N. J., & Bartels, J. M. (2007). Social exclusion decreases prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(1), 56-66. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199
United Nations. (2013). Accessibility and development - mainstreaming disability in the post-2015 development agenda. New York: United Nations.
Velicer, W. F. (1976). Determining the Number of Components from the Matrix of Partial Correlations. Psychometrika, 41(3), 321-327. doi: 10.1007/bf02293557
How to Cite
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share or adapt the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. Use of the work for commercial purposes are not allowed.
- Authors are able to publish the journal's published version of the work in other media (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as far as they inform the Journal of Accessibility and Design for All of that fact. When publishing their work in other sources, authors must mention the name of the Journal of Accessibility and Design for All, its ISSN, the number and issue in which the article was published and a link to the main page of the Journal of Accessibility and Design for All. Optionally, they can also include a link to the article published in the Journal of Accessibility and Design for All.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website), as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.