Research, analysis, and evaluation of web accessibility for a selected group of public websites in Bulgaria


  • Negoslav Sabev Institute of Robotic, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
  • Galya Nikolova Georgieva-Tsaneva Institute of Robotics, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Bulgaria
  • Galina Bogdanova Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria



Disabled People, Accessibility, Public Information, Data Analysis, Web Accessibility Standards


This article discusses the accessibility of public information on the Internet by people with disabilities, and in particular people with visual deficits. Web accessibility standards, content and basic principles have been considered. A survey on the accessibility of public websites in the Republic of Bulgaria was conducted. Information on the group that conducted the study is given, the purpose of the study, the methodology of the study is described. The surveys were conducted on 100 public administration sites, which are divided into 5 groups. The results of the study are presented. Conclusions were made for the accessibility of information in the public sphere of the Republic of Bulgaria. In recent months accessibility of these sites has been re-evaluated. The results show that not enough is being done to achieve accessibility while maintaining public administration websites in Bulgaria. Despite the overall increase in web accessibility of the sites being tested, there is still much work to be done on this.A statistical analysis of the different groups of public sites was conducted, and the group in which the accessibility was the best was examined.Тhe conclusion is that the accessibility of the websites of the public administration in the Republic of Bulgaria is not at the necessary level of accessibility, which does not allow the users with visual disability to access these sites easily. It is, therefore, necessary for the public administration and web application developers to implement the accessibility guidelines proposed in the standards and improve the accessibility of these websites. This will be a step forward in ensuring the rights of people with disabilities. Тhe paper of this survey is original and not previously published.


Anctil, E. (2008). Selling higher education: Marketing and advertising America’s colleges and universities. Jossey-Bass Inc Pub.

Bogdanova, G., Sabev N., & Tomov G. (2016) Web Accessibility Handbook, Horizons Foundation, Sofia, in Bulgarian,

CAPTCHA Telling Humans and Computers Apart Automatically, Official CAPTCHA site:

ISO/IEC 40500:2012,

Kane, S.K., Shulman, J.A., Shockley, T.J. & Ladner, R.E. (2007). A web accessibility report card for top international university web sites. Proceeding of the 2007 international cross-disciplinary conference on Web accessibility (W4A), 148-156.

Kurt, S. (2011). The accessibility of university web sites: The case of Turkish universities”, Universal Access in the Information Society, Vol.10, No 1, 101-110.

Lazar, J., Allen, A., Kleinman, J., & Malarkey, C. (2007) What Frustrates Screen Reader Users on the Web: A study of 100 Blind Users. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 22(3), 247-269.

Lee, S., & Koubek R.J., (2010). The effect of usability and web design attributes on user preference for e-commerce web sites. Computer in Industry, 61(4), 329-341.

Mankoff, J., Fait, H., & Tran, T. (2005) Is your web page accessible?: A comparative study of methods for assessing web page accessibility for the blind. Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 41- 50.

Rahmatizadeh, S., & Valizadeh-Haghi, S. (2018). Monitoring for accessibility in medical university websites: meeting the needs of people with disabilities. Journal of Accessibility and Desing for All, 8(2), 102-124,

Ringlaben, R., Bray, M. & Packard, A. (2014). Accessibility of American University Special Education Departments’ Web sites. Universal Access in the Information Society, 13(2), 249-254.

Stitz, T., Blundell S. (2018) Evaluating the Accessibility of Online Library Guides at an Academic Library. Journal of Accessibility and Desing for All, 8(1), 33-79, doi: .

Thompson, Т., Comden, D., Ferguson, S., Burgstahler, M., Moore, E. Seeking Predictors of Web Accessibility in U.S. Higher Education Institutions, Inf. Technol. Disabil. Vol. 13, Num 1, 2013,

W3C. (2008) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0, Retrieved November 22, 2018, from

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 W3C Recommendation the 05th of June 2018, Retrieved October 22, 2018, from

Website Accessibility Conformance Evaluation Methodology (WCAG-EM) 1.0, W3C Working Group Note 10 July 2014, Retrieved November 4, 2018, from

Wentz, B., Bittle K., Hidey D. & Vickers, P. (2013). Investigating the Web Site Accessibility of Major, Investor-owned Utility Providers in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Proceedings of the Nineteenth American Conference on Information Systems, Chicago, Illinois, 14-17.

World report on disability, World Health Organization, Retrieved December 5, 2018, from

Understanding WCAG Level, RetrievedNovember 22, 2018, from

Karhu, M., Hilera, J. R., Fernández, L., Ríos, R. (2012). Accessibility and readability of university websites in Finland, Jornal of Accessibility and Desing for All, Vol. 2, No 2, pp. 178-190,

Kurt,S. (2011). The accessibility of university websites: The case of Turkish universities. Universal Access in the information Society, 10(1), 101-110,

Kurt, S. (2017). Accessibility of Turkish University Web sites. Universal Access in the Information Society, Vol. 16 (2), pp. 505-515,

Kurt, S. (2019) Moving toward a universally accessible web: Web accessibility and education. Assistive Technology, Vol. 31(4), pp.199-208, DOI: 10.1080/10400435.2017.1414086

Acosta, T., Lujan-Mora, S. (2017). Analysis of the accessibility in websites of Ecuadorian universities of excellence. Enfoque Ute, Vol. 8(1). pp.46-61.

List of 100 public sites in Bulgaria for Accessibility Testing,

Bradbard D., Peters C. (2010) Web Accessibility Theory and Practice: An Introduction for University Faculty, The Journal of Educators Online, Vol. 7, Num. 1, pp. 1-46.

Cocquebert, E., Trentesaux, D., & Tahon, C. (2010). WISDOM: A website design method based on reusing design and software solutions. Information and Software Technology, Vol. 52(12), pp. 1272–1285.

Hassouna, M., Sahari, N., & Ismail A., University Website Accessibility for Totally Blind Users, Journal of ICT, 16, No. 1 2017, pp. 63–80.

Harrison, S., Barlow, J., & Williams, G. (2007). The content and interactivity of health support group websites. Health Education Journal, Vol. 66(4), pp. 371–381.

Wegge, K.P., & Zimmerman, D. (2007). Accessibility, usability, safety, ergonomics: concepts, models, and differences. In C. Stephanidis (Ed.), Universal access in human computer interaction. Coping with diversity (pp.294-301). Heidelberg: Springer Berlin.

Maisak R., Accessibility of Thai university websites: Awareness, barriers, and drivers for accessible practice, Theses, Edith Cowan University, 2015. Retrieved from

Nir H., Evaluation of Web content accessibility in an Israeli institution of higher education, Universal Access in the Information Society, 2018, Vol. 17, No 3, pp. 663–673.

Solovieva T., Bock J., Monitoring for Accessibility and University Websites: Meeting the Needs of People with Disabilities, Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 27(2), pp. 113 – 127, 2014.

Wave (Wave – accessibility evaluation tool),

aXe Developer Tools,

Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria (in Bulgarian), 2015,

Law for people with disabilities, (in Bulgarian), 2018,

Cover of the article




How to Cite

Sabev, N., Georgieva-Tsaneva, G. N., & Bogdanova, G. (2020). Research, analysis, and evaluation of web accessibility for a selected group of public websites in Bulgaria. Journal of Accessibility and Design for All, 10(1), 124–160.