Analysis of the educational spaces and universal design.

The case study of Duzce University faculty of art, design and architecture campus




Education should be an equal distance with everyone, the educational environment as a second lecturer is responsible for supporting equality and should present inclusive characteristics. This study is carried out to evaluate Duzce University Art, Design and Architecture Faculty within the context of universal design principles.  This study evaluates the existing condition of the campus facilities regarding universal design and searches for possible design interventions to improve inclusivity. At first, within this context, the relation between the physical environment and campus users is examined via video recording and observation studies. Analysis of the findings of the observation and video recordings revealed the interaction pattern between the physical environment and users. With the help of analysis, places requiring universal design solutions are identified and classified according to their priority. Within the classified problem areas, problem areas suitable for increasing inclusivity by small scale design interventions are determined, and initial design ideas are constituted for them. The capability of design interventions in increasing the inclusivity of educational environments is exposed, and the importance of a holistic approach in the educational system for inclusivity is emphasized.  As a result, it is revealed that it is possible to improve equality and the participation level of diverse user groups in educational life only by actualizing small-scaled universal design interventions. While showcasing the potency of the universal design applications in an educational setting, this study underlines the importance of conjoint actions of every actor in the educational system.


Afacan, Y., & Demirkan, H. (2010). A priority-based approach for satisfying the diverse users’ needs, capabilities and expectations: a universal kitchen design case. Journal of Engineering Design, 21(2-3), 315-343.

Alagappan, V., Hefferan, A., & Parivallal, A. (2018). Exploring accessibility issues of a public building for the mobility impaired. Case study: interstate bus terminal (ISBT), Vijayawada, India. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 13(3), 271-279.

An Introduction to Design Thinking Process Guide (n.d.). Retrived from:

Ay, S., Baykuş, N., & Ekinci, C. E. (2017). Bedensel Engelliler Açısından Bir Eğitim Kurumunun Ulaşılabilirlik ve Kullanılabilirliğinin İncelenmesi. Engineering Sciences, 12(4), 201–215.

Barnes, C. (2011). Understanding disability and the importance of design for all. Journal of Accessibility and Design for All: JACCES, 1(1), 55–80.

Barnes, C. (2012) Understanding The Social Model Of Disability: Past, Present And Future in Watson, N., Roulstone, A., & Thomas, C. (Eds.). (2012). Routledge handbook of disability studies. Retrieved from

Charlton, J. (1998). Nothing About Us Without Us: Disability Oppression and Empowerment. University of California Press. Retrieved from

Çaha, Havva. 2016. “Engellilerin Toplumsal Hayata Katılmasına Yönelik Politikalar : Türkiye , ABD ve Japonya Örnekleri.” İnsan ve Toplum 5 (10): 123–50.

Evans, Nancy J., et al. (2017). Disability in Higher Education: A Social Justice Approach, John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, ProQuest Ebook Central,

Gossett, A., Mirza, M., Barnds, A. K., & Feidt, D. (2009). Beyond access: A case study on the intersection between accessibility, sustainability, and universal design. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 4(6), 439–450.

Hidayetoglu, M. L., Muezzinoglu, K. M. (2018). User-involved universal design experience in the space, product, and service development process. Iconarp International Journal of Architecture and Planning, 6(0), 41-62.

Holm, G. (2014). Photography as a research method. 379-402. içinde Leavy, P. (Ed.). (2014). The Oxford handbook of qualitative research. Oxford library of psychology.

Imrie, R. (2012). Universalism, universal design and equitable access to the built environment. Disability and Rehabilitation, 34(10), 873–882.

Karlsson, L., Thelin, T., Regnell, B., Berander, P., & Wohlin, C. (2007). Pair-wise comparisons versus planning game partitioning—experiments on requirements prioritization techniques. Empirical Software Engineering, 12(1), 3-33.

Knecht, B. (2004). Accessibility regulations and a universal design philosophy inspire the design process. Architectural Record, 1, 145-150.

Kose, S. (1998). From Barrier-Free to Universal Design: An International Perspective. Assistive Technology, 10(1), 44–50.

Kowaltowski, D. C. C. K., Bernardi, N., & Martin, C. (2015). A universal design Charrette conducted in an educational setting to increase professional sensitivity. Journal of Accessibility and Design for All, 5(1), 47–76.

Lau, W. K., Ho, D. C. W., & Yau, Y. (2016). Assessing the disability inclusiveness of university buildings in Hong Kong. International Journal of Strategic Property Management, 20 (2), 184–197.

Lid, I. M. (2014). Universal Design and disability: An interdisciplinary perspective. Disability and Rehabilitation, 36(16), 1344–1349.

Meşhur, H., & Çakmak, B. Y. (2018). Universal design in urban public spaces: the case of Zafer Pedestrian Zone/Konya-Turkey. ICONARP, Volume 6, Special Issue, August,15-40.

Moriña Díez, A., López, R. G., & Molina, V. M. (2015). Students with disabilities in higher education: a biographical-narrative approach to the role of lecturers. Higher Education Research and Development, 34(1), 147–159.

Preiser, W. F. (2008). Universal design: From policy to assessment research and practice. International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR, 2(2), 78-93.

Rioux, M. H., & Bach, M. (1994). Disability is not measles: New research paradigms in disability. L'Institut Roeher, Kinsmen Building, York University, 4700 Keele St., North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada.

Roth, B. (1973). Design Process and Creativity. Retrived from:

Salmen, J. P. S. (2011). Universal design for academic facilities. In M. S. Huger (Ed.), Fostering the increased integration of students with disabilities: Monograph in New Directions for Student Services, 134 (pp. 13-20). San Francisco, CA: Wiley Periodicals, Jossey-Bass.

Steinfeld, E., Maisel, J., & Levine, D. (2012). Universal design: Creating inclusive environments. Retrieved from

Story, M. F. (1998). Maximizing Usability: The Principles of Universal Design. Assistive Technology, 10(1), 4–12.

Story, M. F., Mueller, J. L., & Mace, R. L. (1998). The universal design file. NC State University: The Center for Universal Design.

Yılmaz, T., Gökçe, D., Şavklı, F., & Çeşmeci, S. (2012). Engellilerin Üniversite Kampüslerinde Ortak Mekanları Kullanabilmeleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma: Akdeniz Üniversitesi Olbia Kültür Merkezi Örneği. Namık Kemal Üniversitesi Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 9(3), 1–10.

Article cover




How to Cite

Soyupak, İlayda. (2021). Analysis of the educational spaces and universal design.: The case study of Duzce University faculty of art, design and architecture campus. Journal of Accessibility and Design for All, 11(1), 86-114.