Acceptability of the process of obtaining a driver's license by young people with and without disabilities

  • Camille Breault Université Laval
  • Liliane Giroux Université Laval
  • Audrey Gauvreau Université Laval
  • Samuel Belanger Université Laval
  • Marie-Eve Lamontagne Université Laval Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale
  • Ernesto Morales Université Laval Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale
Keywords: Opinions, expectations, young adults, parents, typically developing, disability, driver’s education

Abstract

Context and objective. Although there are more than 600 driving schools in Quebec (Canada), only one offers fully adapted services to young people with disabilities. To ensure that these services correspond to best practices in the field, they must be aligned with scientific knowledge and the opinions of experts and users regarding driver’s education. This literature review fills a gap concerning the opinions and expectations of young people with and without disabilities and their parents.Methodology. A search of publications in CINAHL, PubMED, ERIC, Social Sciences Full Text, Ergonomics Abstracts, Academic Search Premier, Web of Science, PsychInfo and Current Contents Connect was done on November 2, 2017, with 118 keywords, and another search was conducted on November 8, 2017, in Sociological Abstracts with 68 keywords. After selection, 25 articles were analyzed.Results. Most youths report that the process of obtaining a driver’s license is stressful, anxiety-provoking and sometimes too expensive to initiate at the minimum legal age (16 years in Quebec). Youths with disabilities say that they do not have adequate information on how the process works. They appear to feel less self-efficacy than their peers without disabilities and to have more difficulties with theoretical and practical learning. Nevertheless, obtaining a license conforms with most young people’s values, whether or not they have a disability.Conclusions. Adapted driving schools, and particularly their instructors, need more knowledge of users’ expectations. The results justify the importance of improving and developing more adapted driver’s education for young people with disabilities, ultimately promoting equitable access to the process of obtaining a license.

Author Biographies

Camille Breault, Université Laval
Master's Student, Département de réadaptation, Faculté de médecine, Université Laval, 1050 avenue de la Médecine, Québec (QC) G1V OA6, Canada
Liliane Giroux, Université Laval
Master's Student, Département de réadaptation, Faculté de médecine, Université Laval, 1050 avenue de la Médecine, Québec (QC) G1V OA6, Canada
Audrey Gauvreau, Université Laval
Master's Student, Département de réadaptation, Faculté de médecine, Université Laval, 1050 avenue de la Médecine, Québec (QC) G1V OA6, Canada
Samuel Belanger, Université Laval
Master's Student, Département de réadaptation, Faculté de médecine, Université Laval, 1050 avenue de la Médecine, Québec (QC) G1V OA6, Canada
Marie-Eve Lamontagne, Université Laval Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale
Adjunt professor, Département de réadaptation, Faculté de médecine, Université Laval, 1050 avenue de la Médecine, Québec (QC) G1V OA6, Canada Regular researcher, Centre Interdisciplinaire de recherche en Réadaptation et Intégration Sociale (CIRRIS), 525 boulevard Wilfrid-Hamel, Québec (QC), G1M 2S8, Canada
Ernesto Morales, Université Laval Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale
Adjunt professor, Département de réadaptation, Faculté de médecine, Université Laval, 1050 avenue de la Médecine, Québec (QC) G1V OA6, Canada Regular researcher, Centre Interdisciplinaire de recherche en Réadaptation et Intégration Sociale (CIRRIS), 525 boulevard Wilfrid-Hamel, Québec (QC), G1M 2S8, Canada

References

Association Québécoise des transports (AQTr). (2015). Écoles de conduite – Notre mandat. Accessed at https://aqtr.com/ecoles-conduite/notre-mandat

Almberg, M., Selander, H., Falkmer, M., Vaz, S., Ciccarelli, M., & Falkmer, T. (2017). Experiences of facilitators or barriers in driving education from learner and novice drivers with ADHD or ASD and their driving instructors. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 20, 59–67. doi:10.3109/17518423.2015.1058299

Audrey, S., & Langford, R. (2014). Dying to get out: Young drivers, safety and social inequity. Injury Prevention, 20, 1–6. doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2013-040756

Begg, D., Langley, J., Brookland, R., McDowell, A., Ameratunga, S., & Broughton, J. (2009). The opinions of newly licensed drivers in New Zealand on the minimum car driver licensing age and reasons for getting a license. Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association, 122(1306), 63–77.

Bell, K. E., Young, K. R., Salzberg, C. L., & West, R. P. (1991). High school driver education using peer tutors, direct instruction, and precision teaching. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 45–51. doi:10.1901/jaba.1991.24-45

Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT). (2012). Profile of practice of occupational therapists in Canada. Accessed at https://www.caot.ca/document/3653/2012otprofile.pdf

Carrabine, E., & Longhurst, B. (2002). Consuming the car: anticipation, use and meaning in contemporary youth culture. The Sociological Review, 50, 181–196. doi:10.1111/1467-954X.00362

Cesario, S., Morin, K., & Santa-Donato, A. (2002). Evaluating the level of evidence of qualitative research. JOGNN: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 31, 708–714. doi:08842170212900535310.1177/0884217502239216

Chee, D. Y. T., Lee, H. C. Y., Falkmer, M., Barnett, T., Falkmer, O., Siljehav, J., & Falkmer, T. (2014). Viewpoints on driving of individuals with and without autism spectrum disorder. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 18, 26–36. doi:10.3109/17518423.2014.964377

Conseil de la santé et du bien-être. (2005). Un cadre d’évaluation globale de la performance des systèmes de services de santé: Le modèle EGIPSS. Accessed at http://www.csbe.gouv.qc.ca/fileadmin/www/Archives/ConseilSanteBienEtre/Rapports/200509_EGIPSS_resume.pdf

Cox, N. B., Reeve, R. E., Cox, S. M., & Cox, D. J. (2012). Brief report: Driving and young adults with ASD: Parents’ experiences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 2257–2262. doi:10.1007/s10803-012-1470-7

Daly, J., Willis, K., Small, R., Green, J., Welch, N., Kealy, M., & Hughes, E. (2007). A hierarchy of evidence for assessing qualitative health research. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 60, 43–49. doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2006.03.014

Delbosc, A., & Currie, G. (2014). Impact of attitudes and life stage on decline in rates of driver’s license acquisition by young people in Melbourne, Australia. Transportation Research Record (2452), 62–70. doi:10.3141/2452-08

Durkin, K., Toseeb, U., Pickles, A., Botting, N., & Conti-Ramsden, G. (2016). Learning to drive in young adults with language impairment. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 42, 195–204. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2016.07.015

Ekelman, B.A., Stav, W., Baker, P., O’Dell-Rossi, P., & Mitchell, S. (2009). Chapter 14 – Community mobility. In B. R. Bonder & V. D. Bello-Haas (Eds.), Functional performance in older adults (pp. 332–385). Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis Co.

Falkmer, M., Barnett, T., Horlin, C., Falkmer, O., Siljehav, J., Fristedt, S., . . . Falkmer, T. (2015). Viewpoints of adults with and without autism spectrum disorders on public transport. Transportation Research Part A – Policy and Practice, 80, 163–183. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2015.07.019

Falkmer, T., & Gregersen, N. P. (2000). The prevalence of learner drivers with cerebral palsy who are in need of highly specialized driver education. Journal of Traffic Medicine, 28, 23–31.

Gagnon-Roy, M., Jasmin, E., & Camden, C. (2016). Social participation of teenagers and young adults with developmental co-ordination disorder and strategies that could help them: Results from a scoping review. Child: Care, Health and Development, 42, 840–51. doi:10.1111/cch.12389

Guttman, N. (2013). “My son is reliable”: Young drivers’ parents’ optimism and views on the norms of parental involvement in youth driving. Journal of Adolescent Research, 28, 241–268. doi:10.1177/0743558411435853

Hartos, J., & Huff, D. C. (2008). Parent attitudes toward integrating parent involvement into teenage driver education courses. Traffic Injury Prevention, 9, 224–230. doi:10.1080/15389580801996521

Heaney, C. A., & Israel, B. A. (2008). Social networks and social support. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, & K. Viswanath (Eds.), Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 189–207). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Institut de la statistique du Québec. (2014). Tableau statistique: proportion de la population québécoise détenant un permis de conduire selon certaines caractéristiques sociodémographiques. Accessed at http://www.stat.gouv.qc.ca/statistiques/conditions-vie-societe/logement-equipement-transport/transport/permis.htm

Kirby, A., Sugden, D., & Edwards, L. (2011). Driving behaviour in young adults with developmental co-ordination disorder. Journal of Adult Development, 18, 122–129. doi:10.1007/s10804-011-9120-4

Lafrance, M.-E., Benoit, D., Dahan-Oliel, N., & Gélinas, I. (2016). Development of a driving readiness program for adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy and spina bifida. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 80, 173–182. doi:10.1177/0308022616672480

Larousse. (n.d.). Opinion. Accessed at http://www.larousse.fr/dictionnaires/francais/opinion/56197

Légis Québec. (2017). Chapter C-12: Charter of human rights and

freedoms. Accessed at http://legisquebec.gouv.qc.ca/en/showdoc/cs/C-12

Masclet, O. (2002). Passer le permis de conduite: La fin de l’adolescence. Agora Débats/Jeunesses, 28, 46–56.

Mazer, B., Gélinas, I., & Benoit, D. (2004). Evaluating and retraining driving performance in clients with disabilities. Critical Reviews in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 16, 291–326.

McCartt, A. T., Hellinga, L. A., & Haire, E. R. (2007). Age of licensure and monitoring teenagers’ driving: Survey of parents of novice teenage drivers. Journal of Safety Research, 38, 697–706. doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2007.10.002

McGill, T., & Vogtle, L. K. (2001). Driver’s education for students with physical disabilities. Exceptional Children, 67, 455–466. doi:10.1177/001440290106700402

McKay, M. P., Coben, J. H., Larkin, G. L., & Shaffer, A. (2008). Attitudes of teenagers and their parents to Pennsylvania’s graduated driver licensing system. Traffic Injury Prevention, 9, 217–223. doi:10.1080/15389580802005660

Mirman, J. H., & Kay, J. (2012). From passengers to drivers: Parent perceptions about how adolescents learn to drive. Journal of Adolescent Research, 27, 401–424. doi:10.1177/0743558411409934

Mullholand Behm, K. (2014). Transitional experiences of 16 to 26 year olds with Turner Syndrome. Doctoral dissertation, Rush University. Accessed at http://proxy.library.mcgill.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=109751885&site=ehost-live

National Institutes of Health (n.d.). Study quality assessment tools. Accessed at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/study-quality-assessment-tools

OCEBM Levels of Evidence Working Group. (2011). Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 levels of evidence. Accessed at https://www.cebm.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/CEBM-Levels-of-Evidence-2.1.pdf

Office des personnes handicapées du Québec. (2011). Guide des programmes d’aide pour les personnes handicapées et leur famille: Aide financière, équipements et fournitures. Accessed at https://www.ophq.gouv.qc.ca/fileadmin/documents/Guides/Guide_des_Programmes_Acc.pdf

Office québécois de la langue française. (2006). Fiche terminologique: Attentes. Accessed at http://gdt.oqlf.gouv.qc.ca/ficheOqlf.aspx?Id_Fiche=502353

Office québécois de la langue française. (2011). Fiche terminologique: Mobilité. Accessed at http://gdt.oqlf.gouv.qc.ca/ficheOqlf.aspx?Id_Fiche=26507041

Ordre des ergothérapeutes du Québec. (2008b). L’activité: L’outil privilégié de l’ergothérapeute. Accessed at https://www.oeq.org/DATA/CHRONIQUE/2~v~activite_outil_privilegie.pdf

Ouzzani, M., Hammady, H., Fedorowicz, Z., & Elmagarmid, A. (2016). Rayyan – A web and mobile app for systematic reviews. Systematic Reviews, 5(210), 1–10. doi:10.1186/s13643-016-0384-4

Pluye, P., Robert, E., Cargo, M., Bartlett, G., O’Cathain, A., Griffiths, . . . Rousseau, M. C. (2011). Proposal: A mixed methods appraisal tool for systematic mixed studies reviews. Montreal, QC: Department of Family Medicine, McGill University.

Radio Canada. (2018). Hausse anticipée du prix des cours de conduite au Québec. Accessed at https://ici.radio-canada.ca/nouvelle/1097115/hausse-prix-cours-conduite-quebec-gel-indexation-ministre-transport-andre-fortin

Sacks, S. Z., & Rosenblum, L. P. (2006). Adolescents with low vision: Perceptions of driving and nondriving. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 100, 212–222.

Scott-Parker, B. (2015). Experiences of teen drivers and their advice for the learner license phase. Traffic Injury Prevention, 16, 109–115. doi:10.1080/15389588.2014.909594

Scott-Parker, B., King, M. J., & Watson, B. (2015). The psychosocial purpose of driving and its relationship with the risky driving behaviour of young novice drivers. Transportation Research Part F: Psychology and Behaviour, 33, 16–26. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2015.06.004

Sekhon, M., Cartwright, M., & Francis, J. J. (2017). Acceptability of healthcare interventions: An overview of reviews and development of a theoretical framework. BMC Health Services Research, 17, 88. doi:10.1186/s12913-017-2031-8

Sherman, K., Lapidus, G., Gelven, E., & Banco, L. (2004). New teen drivers and their parents: What they know and what they expect. American Journal of Health Behavior, 28, 387–396.

Simms, B. (1991). The car use of young drivers with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. European Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 1(Suppl. 1), 31–34.

Smith, L. H. (2011). Cross‐age peer mentoring approach to impact the health outcomes of children and families. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 16, 220–225. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6155.2011.00286.x

Société de l’assurance automobile du Québec (SAAQ). (2018b). Accompanying rider’s guide: Passenger vehicle. Quebec, QC: Gouvernement du Québec.

Törnqvist, M. C., Thulin, S., Segnestam, Y., & Horowitz, L. (2009). Adult people with language impairment and their life situation. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 30, 237–254. doi:10.1177/1525740108326034

Tronsmoen, T. (2011). Differences between formal and informal practical driver training as experienced by the learners themselves. Transportation Research Part F: Psychology and Behaviour, 14, 176–188. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2010.11.009

Wall, K. (2017). Low income among persons with a disability in Canada. Accessed at https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/75-006-x/2017001/article/54854-eng.htm

Williams, A. F. (2011). Teenagers’ licensing decisions and their views of licensing policies: A national survey. Traffic Injury Prevention, 12, 312–319. doi:10.1080/15389588.2011.572100

Williams, A. F., & Chaudhary, N. K. (2008). Views of Connecticut parents of teens and other adults about graduated licensing upgrades. Traffic Injury Prevention, 9, 503–507. doi:10.1080/15389580802330845

Published
2019-05-31